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Not until shortly before the invention of printing from movable type was parchment displaced by paper in the Western world. Since classical scholars assume the general reliability of these secular works even where the time interval is great and where only a few MSS are available, it is clear that with far greater assurance the student of the NT may assume that the presently-available NT text reliably represents what the authors originally wrote.

OL MSS are cited by single lower-case letters plus abbreviations such as aur, ff2, gig, and ph. One, Codex Argenteus, in the University Library of Uppsala, Sweden, containing portions of the gospels, is written in silver ink on purple vellum hence its name. Even the gospels were written for a purpose that was different from that of ordinary lit.

Later, however, a quire of four sheets, which made sixteen pages, became standard. Other writings have survived in a few or a few dozen copies. What is possibly the only extant MS of the Philoxenian Syrphcontains only the books that were not included in the Peshitta: The text of a work was not generally written on the outside surface of the roll, both because of the inconvenience to the reader and the fact that the papyrus strips on this surface would be vertical and writing across the grain of the papyrus would be more difficult.

Most of Codex N is in Leningrad, but parts of it are in several other locations. A new section may be indicated by beginning a new line or by a slightly larger initial letter extending into the left margin. Errors of seeing include esp. About years before the Christian era, however, a new process was developed whereby the skins were scraped, soaked in quicklime, and rubbed with chalk and pumice stone, which produced a thin, firm, and very durable writing surface.

Most of the leaves of the Beatty papyri are in the Chester Beatty collection in Dublin, although thirty of the eighty-six leaves of P46 are in the University of Michigan collection, and some fragments of one leaf of P45 are in Vienna.

Apart from the Diatessaron, part or all of the NT had been tr. VSS because of its influence on the Syrian church. This is an over-simplification, because in actual fact a MS of the 11th cent.

In making a copy of a book by hand, an ancient scribe—and a modern scribe as well—would almost certainly introduce errors and changes of various sorts into his copy, accidentally or, at times, intentionally. Transmission of the NT text A. Ina Syr. Since the Prodigal Son says in Luke Errors of hearing might arise when a group of scribes copied MSS by dictation.

There were practical limits for the length of a scroll, but a long work could be extended to more than one scroll. When his MS was copied, then, most of his variants would be carried over into the next MS along with any additional errors and changes that the next scribe might make.

Most of the works of these Church Fathers are in Gr. Dated in the first half of the 2nd cent. In addition, brief NT passages were sometimes inscribed on talismans, or good luck charms, although they were condemned by church authorities see Metzger, Text of the NT, This period continued until Christianity gained official recognition in the early 4th cent.

Textual criticism is a basic discipline, a prerequisite to all further NT studies, for the determination of the text to be used must precede the interpretation of the text. The second and perhaps even more significant collection of NT papyri is that of the Bodmer Library in Geneva, Switzerland.

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TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. I. Introduction. It is now possible to print any number of identical copies of a work; but in ancient times, when each individual copy had to be made separately by hand, the only certainty was that no two copies of a book of any length would be identical.

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